Q1.What is supercapacitor?
A Super-Capacitor, also known as an Ultra-Capacitor or an Electric Double Layer Capacitor, an energy-saving device that rapidly stores energy and supplies a substantial amount of current rapidly or continuously.
Activated Carbon technology creates the characteristics that absorb or separates electric charges which are fundamental to the Supercapacitor.
Since a supercapacitor has much lower internal resistance (ESR) compared to battery technology, it can supply greater output power. Also operating over wider temperature ranges with much longer lifetime(500,000+ cycles) than a battery.
Supercapcitor is used for various applications ranging from electronic equipments that need quick charging and discharging to energy-saving applications in industries where a battery can be replaced with or used together with a supercapacitor.
Here’s how to make a super capacitor. You can make these at home with aluminium foil and other materials found on the internet, it could be fun but not efficient or cost effective as the VINATech way. After 20 years of continual improvement and development, we fully understand the production process for mass production of the highest quality electric double layer capacitors.
We would like to share with you today how we make supercapacitors at VINATech, the very best way to make supercapacitors in the world. There are basically 5 stages to make supercapacitors; Electrode, Winding, Drying, Sleeving, and Inspection & Test.
Let’s start from the process of Electrode which is the core part of supercapacitor(EDLC). The characteristics of supercapacitors depend on the quality of Electrode. VINATech make high importance on producing the very best Electrode with it’s the very unique techniques. This guarantees the quality of our Electrode, following four key steps which include Mixing, Coating, Rolling and Pressing and followed by Slitting.
Mixing is to make a ‘Slurry’ which is a liquid with viscosity, and Hy-cap supercapacitor by VINATech uses the very best activated carbon and materials to guarantee the quality.
Coating is the process for coating Electrode on separators after Mixing process.
Roll Press after Coating is the process with pressing the Coated Electrode and Aluminum foil with high temperature and pressure.
Slitting process is to cut the Electrode into certain width, size by size, and its output will be ready for next assembly process.
Following the Electrode production remove to another key stage, the Winding process which is important for supercapacitors to have supercapacitors shaped, and the previous steps before Winding then Striping and Stitching. VINATech uses the very latest automated process to ensure the very highest consistency.
Striping secures space for lead terminals by stripping off very small part of coating electrode.
Stitching is to fix lead terminals on the place where striping process is done, which polarize the shorter lead terminals into cathode and the longer lead into anode.
Winding, the process of combining the anode and cathode electrode and separator together. After that, the supercapacitor can have a radial / cylinder shaped electric double layer capacitor.
Thirdly, the next process is to control and reduce the impact of moisture caused by the external environment which can later work against the ultracapacitor. VINATech has four steps to reach the stage of perfection such as Vacuum dry, Sealing pad assembly, Electrolyte filling, and Curling.
Drying process is in a vacuum oven for a selected time, which is proven to be most effective. Electrolyte filling is injecting electrolyte into assembled products. Aluminium can assembly process and Curling are the processes which follow, again using the latest automated processes, as developed by VINATech’s own technology base, sealing a electrolyte filling finished product in an aluminum case with rubber bung.
Fourth, is the Sleeving, with heat shrinkable tube. And then the test and Inspection Check-up.
With all above process work the VINATech ultracapacitor is ready to ship out to satisfy Customer needs. Thoroughly proved to be effective is the VINATech’s own technology based process, and it makes VINATech the world leading supercapacitor manufacturer and chosen by world best clients. Customers are the very reason for VINATech. We, VINATECH, always keep our eyes open with working on research and innovation to make world best supercapacitor.
Q2.What is an EDLC?
An EDLC(Electric Double Layer Capacitor) refers to two parallel layers of electric charges that are formed around an object interface with lot of holes and with special materials that produce electric statics.
Electric Double Layer Capacitor stores energy by using Electric Double Layers where electric charges are combined together for charging and separated for discharging. Thus, it has little damage to an electrode, which allows it to last semi-permanently, and to charge and discharge quickly.
Q3.What is the Pseudo-Capacitor?
Pseudo-Capacitor is an electrochemical supercapacitor where energy (pseudo capacitance) is generated through red ox reaction between an electrode and electrolyte.
There are disadvantages of the Pseudo-Capacitor. Metal active material, its main raw material is expensive and its manufacturing process is difficult. Also, its ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) is high.
Q4.What is the Hybrid Capacitor?
Basically, the hybrid capacitor is a combination of two different electrodes, one is EDLC electrode, and the other is Pseudo-Capacitor electrode. Therefore, this capacitor sustains both EDLC and Pseudo-capacitor characteristics. For example, an EDLC electrode in the Hybrid Capacitor has high density power and the other Pseudo-Capacitor electrode has high density capacitance (energy).
Among its advantages, it is environmentally-friendly, and its energy density is higher than an EDLC. Also its charging and discharging is fast.
VinaTech’s Hybrid Capacitor is also called P-EDLC.
Q5.What are the terms used to refer to the characteristics of the supercapacitor?
‘Capacitance’ means the amount of electrical charges that can be stored or discharged
‘Rated Voltage’ means the maximum voltage that can be applied continuously in standard( or normal) conditions without harming the component..
‘Max. Current’ means the maximum amount of current that can be supplied to equipment.
AC-ESR(Alternating Current-Equivalent Series Resistance):
The resistance value, measured in AC setting enabling fast quality test measurement
DC-ESR (Direct Current-Equivalent Series Resistance) means ESR value that is measured by repetitive charging and discharging in direct current setting.
According to IEC62391 VINATech measures DC-ESR(Rd) by the following formula.
‘I’ is the discharging current, and ‘△U3’ is the difference value between the discharging voltage at start and the discharging voltage 10ms later (or the voltage value that comes after subtracting the discharging voltage 10ms later from the start discharging voltage)
‘Leakage Current’ is current that leaks from the circuit where the current is supposed to flow. The current that leaks from a case or a point of earthing is also called the leakage current.
‘Energy density’ refers to the amount of energy stored in a set weight or a set volume. The term for this is Wh/kg or Wh/I.
‘Power Density’ refers to the amount of power that is generated from a set weight or a set volume. The term for this is W/kg or W/I.
Q6.What is Hy-Cap?
Hy-Cap is the brand name for the VINATech designed and manufactured super-capacitor.
Q7.What approvals have Vinatech’s Hy-Cap acquired?
Q8.What are the characteristics of Hy-Cap?
Using activated carbons, a natural material, our Hy-Cap is environmentally-friendly.
It offers very high density power with super-low ESR (low internal resistance).
VINATech are the first company in the world to develop 3.0V EDLC creating a 23% increase in power density compared to 2.7V Hy-Cap’s.
Our hybrid type Hy-Cap offers twice the energy density of the standard EDLC range. By using PC (Propylene Carbonate) the P-EDLC operates in a wider temperature range than Batteries. The Hybrid technology has impressive power output and long life time, ideally suited to replacing low energy density battery technology.
Vinatech has the largest production capacity of cylinder type capacitors focusing in the0.5F~1,000F range.
Q9.What are the applications for Hy-Cap supercapacitors?
Our Hy-Cap EDLC, with very low internal resistance(ESR), is ideally suited for back-up power applications that require strong current for short period of time or quick response, while our hybrid-type Hy-Cap, with double density capacitance compared to the standard EDLC is the right solution for back-up power demands requiring low current for long period of time in continuous mode.
Q10.What is Regenerative Braking?
Regenerative Braking is an electric braking method that produces braking force by operating the motor as a power generator to convert kinetic energy to electric energy, which is also called, “Regenerative Braking Power.” In this system the turning resistance during the power generation can be used as braking force. Regenerative Braking is widely used in areas where the motor serves as the power source, e.g., elevators, electric locomotives, or ordinary vehicles.
Q11.What are the principles of Regenerative Energy in elevators?
Regenerative Energy in elevators consist of an all-in-one converter/inverter, car, discharge resistor and balance weight.
Regenerative Energy in elevators generates the energy when the elevator goes up or down, according to weight difference between the car load and the balance weight.
If the car load is heavier than the balance weight, Regenerative Energy is generated while the car moves down; if the former is lighter than the latter, the energy is generated while the car moves up.
Q12.Why do we need a Super Capacitor in elevators?
Even though a fire may take place at the same time as the blackout, the elevator carries passengers all the way to a safe floor and opens the door, by activating the Super Capacitor.
In case of no Super Capacitor
•Passengers boarding on 30th floor
•Blackout; elevator stops moving
•119 Call 911 for rescue
•A fire on 20th floor; fire alarm activated
•119 911 team arrives for the rescue
In case of a Super Capacitor
•Passengers boarding on 30th floor
•Blackout; Super Capacitor activated
•Elevator stops on 28th floor; door opens passengers disembark
•Announcement for prevention of boarding
•A fire on 20th floor; fire alarm activated
A Super Capacitor mounted in the elevator can reduce the cost of mobilizing firefighters in a door lockup incident. The following table is a summary of the number of firefighters’ mobilization from 2010 to 2013 in South Korea; here you can see that about 20,000 incidents take place each year.
The below graph shows voltage variations in cases where Super Capacitor is or is not installed.
The below graph shows voltage variations in cases where Super Capacitor is or is not installed.
Q13.How is Regenerative Braking applied to vehicles?
Q14.How is Regenerative Braking applied to rolling stock?
Q15.What is the cycle life of the Hy-Cap?
The total cycle time for our Hy-Cap EDLC is 500,000~1,000,000, and the cycle time for Hybrid type Hy-Cap is 100,000.
However, the working conditions such as temperature and voltage could affect the total cycle time.
Q16.What cautions should be taken before using Hy-Cap?
When using Hy-Cap Electric Double-Layer Capacitor, please make sure of polarity(+and ‒marking) when using and do not use higher than rated voltage. Also please use within the recommended operating temperature range and store within the recommended storage temperature range. In case of connecting more than 2 units for modules, we recommend “unit voltage - 0.2V” per unit for the sake of safer voltage balancing (e.g. 2.5V in case of 2.7V unit). When soldering, be aware of proper conditions in order to avoid excessive heat or time on the products.
※ For more details, please contact us.
Q17.How can we access the latest catalogue and the date sheets?
Q18.How can I arrange samples?
You can request for samples on our inquiry page. We will send them once we have checked your application and requirements for the most suitable solution.
Q19.What does ‘balancing’ mean and what are the characteristics of a circuit?
Voltage variation amongst cells could occur in a module depending on each cell’s characteristics. The variable needs to be reduced to as low as possible for the best performance. The function of reducing it is called ‘balancing’. Vinatech’s special balancing technology is applied to all Vinatech’s modules in order to make their lifetime as long as possible and utilize their capacitance as much as possible.
Q20.Can the terminal of Hy-Cap be customised?
Yes. For example, a Lead Terminal, Snap-in Terminal, Wire Terminal, and Wired connector are all available options.
Q21.How can I reach personnel in charge of my region?
You can request contact details via our inquiry page. The most local VINATech office will then contact you to discuss your application and requirements.
Q22.What is the specification of package for Hy-Cap?
Q23.Could Hy-Cap be offered in Ammo Taping Package?
The Hy-Cap cell in size of Φ8 or of Φ10 can be also offered in Ammo Taping Package.
Q24.Can Hy-Cap Supercapacitor make LED Watch?
Please see photos of a new design for a Solar watch, we have permission to use this in our websites and it's certainly a different application with VINATech Hy-Cap Supercapacitor.
"I understand that this not practical watches, I calling my product "party watch", not for daily usage but good eye catcher on special occasions.
Standby time is acceptable, in good condition more than 7 days. If anybody think that 5 minutes run-time is low? it is about 300seconds if you display time for 3 seconds you can check time 100 times or 350 times in low brightness.
Charging is very simple because VINATech supercaps are 3.0V, just I use 3.0V fixed voltage LDO MCP1700T3002ETT with 10R resistor to limit charging current + shottky diode for protection reverse current to LDO .... charging voltage drop to acceptable 2.95V
I am satisfied with results, I have something unique in world ... non practical but unique ;) ...."
Thanks to the Hackaday team you can learn more through Hackaday and YouTube.
Hy-cap Supercapacitor LED Watch made By Peter Misenko
YouTube > www.youtube.com/watch?v=MieHTr4xJfM
Project Log > https://hackaday.io/project/21342-bpw34-solar-powered-led-watch
'Absolute best watch ever'
Q25.What is wetting? (Leakage VS Wetting)
Hy-Cap Anti Wetting Solution
The NEO series has been developed by VINATech’s R&D team.
What is ‘Wetting’?
‘Wetting’ is a phenomenon found when a Radial type EDLC (or Coin type) is used in extreme conditions, normally above the recommended +65c and linked with high humidity, normally found in Equatorial countries, rain forests etc. or in plain high temperatures near coast lines and some factory environments too.
The observation is a black sticky substance on the (-) pin, this in fact is a strong Alkali which corrodes the pin and rubber then erodes the PCB track causing equipment failure. Often the EDLC continues to work.
Why does it leak? We have studied this in depth and understand it is caused by an internal chemical reaction when additional H2O meets the Electrode and Electrolyte. It doesn’t effect the SNAP IN types
VINATech and some major customers have tested the NEO products at +65℃ & 90% RH and, after 12 months of accelerated test, have not seen any sign of wetting.
What is ‘Leakage’?
‘Leakage’ is a phenomenon that the electrolyte (Salt + Solvent) is emitted out through (+/-) lead hole or rim of Al can, then only salt which looks white remains dried. It is mainly caused by the abnormality of sealing.
Basically ‘Leakage’ phenomenon is different with ‘Wetting’, because the root cause is totally different.
Does it affect all EDLCs?
So far we have evidence it affects all EDLCs but mainly 2.7V series. As yet we haven’t seen “wetting” from our 3V customers, but it could be possible.
It affects all Industry sectors from HVAC to PCs, UPS, Automotive , Tracking , Building controls and AMR(Smartmeter).
Does it effect our competitors?
Yes. We have tested all our competitors 2.7V products and at some stage, some earlier than others, their products do fail
How is NEO better than other possible Anti Wetting solutions?
VINATech have improved the rubber bung, tightened the sealing (also for standard VEC series) but have also changed the Internal construction of the Capacitor to prevent the chemical reaction.
How do our competitors overcome Wetting?
One manufacturer has improved the rubber bung (like our VEC type) and added some epoxy or urethan, this has delayed the phenomenon. They also recommend anti gravitational mounting.
Other manufacturers suggest increasing the number of capacitors in series or bluntly say it is a fact of life and the customer should plan for this.
Life time, can we use the same life time data?
Yes, the NEO follows the same characteristics
Soldering and usage?
Please use the same guidelines as for VEC series, manual soldering or wave soldering (NOT Reflow)
Q26.Can 3V Hy-Cap Supercapacitor make Rocket ?
Please check this out the video of an electric rocket, made with VINATech's Hy-Cap supercapacitor, that is, Ultracapacitor, electric double layer capacitor(EDLC). Thanks to Mr. Tom Stanton, he agreed to post it on VINATech websites.
Before the project, he thought the supercapacitor was more like future technology related with fast charging electric vehicles(EV). However, after he made supercapacitor rocket by himself with VINATech 3V supercapacitor, he found out that it has more energy density than the regular capacitor, and you can find it in the video between 01:30~02:00. 12:10 can see how fast for charging supercapacitor and 12:30 Hy-Cap supercapacitor Rocket is soaring up in the air successfully.
Q27.How to make MEA, PEMFC-MEA and DMFC-MEA?
Fuel Cells are a growing source of green energy generation and VINATech is a leader in the development of this emerging technology. So how do we make our PEMFC’s (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) and MEAs (Membrane Electrode Assembly) and DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly) at VINATech.
Here is a brief overview of how we make Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (PEMFC-MEA). Firstly it takes many years to select the right raw materials then testing incoming materials
In order to make PEMFC-MEA(Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly), Slurry Mixing: Pt/C or PtRu/C catalyst mix with binder, menstruum and water is the first step and Electrode Coating: Using the slurry make electrode for membrane and Lamination/Delamination process is followed, after then, Sub-gasket assembly process is of attaching a sub-gasket to the both side of the membrane, make 5 layers MEA. GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) assembly is the last step that the GDL attach sub-gasket to the both side of the sub-gasket, making 7 layers MEA.
DMFC-MEA(Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly) required less steps than the previous one. Slurry Mixing is the process that Pt/C or PtRu/C catalyst mix with binder, menstruum and water, and Electrode Coating is done by Using the slurry coat the GDL. Next is GDL assembly process that The GDL attach membrane to both side of membrane, make 5 layers MEA.
Q28.What is the measurement method of Supercapacitance ESR and Capacitance?
DC ESR(Rd) is calculated by voltage drop (ΔV) which is measured by the period of time from discharge start to 10 milliseconds later. The discharge current(A) for test and measurement, 40 x Capacitance(F) x Rated Voltage(VR) would be recommended. AC Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) is measured by 4-probe impedance analyzer. Condition : Potentiostat mode, AC amplitude : 5mV, Frequency : 1㎑
Supercapacitor capacitance measurement is as followed.