No.1What is SuperCapacitor?
A Super-Capacitor, also known as an Ultra-Capacitor or an Electric Double Layer Capacitor, an energy-saving device that rapidly stores energy and supplies a substantial amount of current rapidly or continuously.
Activated Carbon technology creates the characteristics that absorb or separates electric charges which are fundamental to the Supercapacitor.
Since a supercapacitor has much lower internal resistance (ESR) compared to battery technology, it can supply greater output power. Also operating over wider temperature ranges with much longer lifetime(500,000+ cycles) than a battery.
More information can be found on our web site of VINATech Blog
Learn more about What is a SuperCapacitor and How does it work?Ā (Link)
Lean more about How to make a SuperCapacitorĀ (Link)
No.2What is an EDLC?
An EDLC(Electric Double Layer Capacitor) refers to two parallel layers of electric charges that are formed around an object interface with lot of holes and with special materials that produce electric statics.
Electric Double Layer Capacitor stores energy by using Electric Double Layers where electric charges are combined together for charging and separated for discharging. Thus, it has little damage to an electrode, which allows it to last semi-permanently, and to charge and discharge quickly.
No.3What is the Pseudo-Capacitor?
Pseudo-Capacitor is an electrochemical supercapacitor where energy (pseudo capacitance) is generated through red ox reaction between an electrode and electrolyte.
There are disadvantages of the Pseudo-Capacitor. Metal active material, its main raw material is expensive and its manufacturing process is difficult. Also, its ESR (Equivalent Series Resistance) is high.
No.4What is the Hybrid Capacitor?
Basically, the hybrid capacitor is a combination of two different electrodes, one is EDLC electrode, and the other is Pseudo-Capacitor electrode. Therefore, this capacitor sustains both EDLC and Pseudo-capacitor characteristics. For example, an EDLC electrode in the Hybrid Capacitor has high density power and the other Pseudo-Capacitor electrode has high density capacitance (energy).
Among its advantages, it is environmentally-friendly, and its energy density is higher than an EDLC. Also its charging and discharging is fast.
VinaTech’s Hybrid Capacitor is also called P-EDLC.
No.5What are the terms used to refer to the characteristics of the supercapacitor?
‘Capacitance’ means the amount of electrical charges that can be stored or discharged
‘Rated Voltage’ means the maximum voltage that can be applied continuously in standard( or normal) conditions without harming the component..
‘Max. Current’ means the maximum amount of current that can be supplied to equipment.
AC-ESR(Alternating Current-Equivalent Series Resistance):
The resistance value, measured in AC setting enabling fast quality test measurement
DC-ESR (Direct Current-Equivalent Series Resistance) means ESR value that is measured by repetitive charging and discharging in direct current setting.
According to IEC62391 VINATech measures DC-ESR(Rd) by the following formula.
‘I’ is the discharging current, and ‘ā³U3’ is the difference value between the discharging voltage at start and the discharging voltage 10ms later (or the voltage value that comes after subtracting the discharging voltage 10ms later from the start discharging voltage)
‘Leakage Current’ is current that leaks from the circuit where the current is supposed to flow. The current that leaks from a case or a point of earthing is also called the leakage current.
‘Energy density’ refers to the amount of energy stored in a set weight or a set volume. The term for this is Wh/kg or Wh/I.
‘Power Density’ refers to the amount of power that is generated from a set weight or a set volume. The term for this is W/kg or W/I.
No.6What is Hy-Cap?
Hy-Cap is the brand name for the VINATech designed and manufactured super-capacitor.
No.7What approvals have Vinatechās Hy-Cap acquired?
Hy-Cap has acquired various quality approvals including UL, IATF 16949 :2016.Ā
Also Hy-Cap complies with RoHS and WEEE.
Hy-Cap Certifications UL [Download]
Hy-Cap Certifications IATF 16949 : 2016 [Download]
No.8What are the characteristics of Hy-Cap?
Using activated carbons, a natural material, our Hy-Cap is environmentally-friendly.
It offers very high density power with super-low ESR (low internal resistance).
VINATech are the first company in the world to develop 3.0V EDLC creating a 23% increase in power density compared to 2.7V Hy-Cap’s.
Our hybrid type Hy-Cap offers twice the energy density of the standard EDLC range. By using PC (Propylene Carbonate) the P-EDLC operates in a wider temperature range than Batteries. The Hybrid technology has impressive power output and long life time, ideally suited to replacing low energy density battery technology.
Vinatech has the largest production capacity of cylinder type capacitors focusing in the0.5F~1,000F range.
No.9What are the applications for Hy-Cap supercapacitors?
Our Hy-Cap EDLC, with very low internal resistance(ESR), is ideally suited for back-up power applications that require strong current for short period of time or quick response, while our hybrid-type Hy-Cap, with double density capacitance compared to the standard EDLC is the right solution for back-up power demands requiring low current for long period of time in continuous mode.Ā
No.10What is Regenerative Braking?
Regenerative Braking is an electric braking method that produces braking force by operating the motor as a power generator to convert kinetic energy to electric energy, which is also called, “Regenerative Braking Power.” In this system the turning resistance during the power generation can be used as braking force. Regenerative Braking is widely used in areas where the motor serves as the power source, e.g., elevators, electric locomotives, or ordinary vehicles.
No.11What are the principles of Regenerative Energy in elevators?
Regenerative Energy in elevators consist of an all-in-one converter/inverter, car, discharge resistor and balance weight.
Regenerative Energy in elevators generates the energy when the elevator goes up or down, according to weight difference between the car load and the balance weight.
If the car load is heavier than the balance weight, Regenerative Energy is generated while the car moves down; if the former is lighter than the latter, the energy is generated while the car moves up.
No.12Why do we need a Super Capacitor in elevators?
Even though a fire may take place at the same time as the blackout, the elevator carries passengers all the way to a safe floor and opens the door, by activating the Super Capacitor.
In case of no Super Capacitor
•Passengers boarding on 30th floor
•Blackout; elevator stops moving
•119 Call 911 for rescue
•A fire on 20th floor; fire alarm activated
•119 911 team arrives for the rescue
In case of a Super Capacitor
•Passengers boarding on 30th floor
•Blackout; Super Capacitor activated
•Elevator stops on 28th floor; door opens passengers disembark
•Announcement for prevention of boarding
•A fire on 20th floor; fire alarm activated
No.13How is Regenerative Braking applied to vehicles?
No.14How is Regenerative Braking applied to rolling stock?
No.15What is the cycle life of the Hy-Cap?
The total cycle time for our Hy-Cap EDLC is 500,000~1,000,000, and the cycle time for Hybrid type Hy-Cap is 100,000.
However, the working conditions such as temperature and voltage could affect the total cycle time.
No.16What cautions should be taken before using Hy-Cap?
When using Hy-Cap Electric Double-Layer Capacitor, please make sure of polarity(+and āmarking) when using and do not use higher than rated voltage. Also please useĀ within the recommended operating temperature range and store within the recommended storage temperature range. In case of connecting more than 2 units for modules, we recommend āunit voltage - 0.2Vā per unit for the sake of safer voltage balancing (e.g. 2.5V in case of 2.7V unit). When soldering, be aware of proper conditions in order to avoid excessive heat or time on the products.
Ā >> Learn more(Link)
ā» For more details, please contact us.
No.17How can we access the latest catalogue and the date sheets?
You can download Hy-Cap catalogue from below link and contact us for further details on our inquiry page and firstname.lastname@example.org.Ā If you want them by mail, please request them on our inquiry page.
Ā Hy-Cap Catalogue
No.18How can I arrange samples?
You can request for samples on our inquiry page. We will send them once we have checked your application and requirements for the most suitable solution.
No.19What does Balancing mean and what are the characteristics of a circuit?
Voltage variation amongst cells could occur in a module depending on each cellās characteristics. The variable needs to be reduced to as low as possible for the best performance. The function of reducing it is called ābalancingā. Vinatechās special balancing technology is applied to all Vinatechās modules in order to make their life time as long as possible and utilize their capacitance as much as possible.Ā Ā
Whether a user needs balancing or not depends on the charging condition. VINATech modules are balanced from matched products direct from the production line.
Balancing is not necessary if the maximum charging voltage leaves an available margin of 0.2V. For example, a maximum charging voltage for a 2.7V cell is 2.5V, then 0.2V is left vacant, so it doesn't need to be balanced.Ā
However, if an application charges fully to maximum voltage like 2.7V or 3.0V, then it should be balanced.Ā
Active balancing takes up more PCB space, so because of space constraint, we usually recommend a passive balancing. Active balancing is more costly (x2 in case and has energy needs too).
If the user doesnātā want passive balancing, then identify the required charging condition. If the charging condition leaves enough margin over 2.0v, then the balancing is not necessary.Ā
With enough margin, the user can use a module without balancing as this will lead to the shortening of life time of the Supercapacitor
>> Learn more
No.20Can the terminal of Hy-Cap be customised?
Yes. For example, a Lead Terminal, Snap-in Terminal, Wire Terminal, and Wired connector are all available options.
No.21How can I reach personnel in charge of my region?
You can request contact details via our inquiry page. The most local VINATech office will then contact you to discuss your application and requirements.
Also, you may refer theĀ Locations(Link)Ā for regional sales contact.Ā
No.22What is the specification of package for Hy-Cap?
Please contact us on our inquiry page or email us email@example.com for the specification of the package.
No.23Could Hy-Cap be offered in Ammo Taping Package?
The Hy-Cap cell in size of Φ8 or of Φ10 can be also offered in Ammo Taping Package.
No.24Can Hy-Cap Supercapacitor make LED Watch?
Please see photos of a new design for a Solar watch, we have permission to use this in our websites and it's certainly a different application with VINATech Hy-Cap Supercapacitor.
"I understand that this not practical watches, I calling my product "party watch", not for daily usage but good eye catcher on special occasions.
Standby time is acceptable, in good condition more than 7 days. If anybody think that 5 minutes run-time is low? it is about 300seconds if you display time for 3 seconds you can check time 100 times or 350 times in low brightness.
Charging is very simple because VINATech supercaps are 3.0V, just I use 3.0V fixed voltage LDO MCP1700T3002ETT with 10R resistor to limit charging current + shottky diode for protection reverse current to LDO .... charging voltage drop to acceptable 2.95V
I am satisfied with results, I have something unique in world ... non practical but unique ;) ...."
Thanks to the Hackaday team you can learn more through Hackaday and YouTube.
Hy-cap Supercapacitor LED Watch made By Peter MisenkoĀ
YouTube > www.youtube.com/watch?v=MieHTr4xJfMĀ
Project Log > https://hackaday.io/project/21342-bpw34-solar-powered-led-watchĀ
'Absolute best watch ever'
No.25What is wetting? (Leakage VS Wetting)
Hy-Cap Anti Wetting Solution
The NEO seriesĀ has been developed by VINATechās R&D team.
What is āWettingā?
āWettingā is a phenomenon found when a Radial type EDLC (or Coin type) is used in extreme conditions, normally above the recommended +65c and linked with high humidity, normally found in Equatorial countries, rain forests etc. or in plain high temperatures near coast lines and some factory environments too.
The observation is a black sticky substance on the (-) pin, this in fact is a strong Alkali which corrodes the pin and rubber then erodes the PCB track causing equipment failure. Often the EDLC continues to work.
Why does it leak? We have studied this in depth and understand it is caused by an internal chemical reaction when additional H2O meets the Electrode and Electrolyte. It doesnāt effect the SNAP IN types
VINATech and some major customers have tested the NEO products at +65ā & 90% RH and, after 12 months of accelerated test, have not seen any sign of wetting.
What is āLeakageā?
Ā āLeakageā is a phenomenon that the electrolyte (Salt + Solvent) is emitted out through (+/-) lead hole or rim of Al can, then only salt which looks white remains dried. It is mainly caused by the abnormality of sealing.
Basically āLeakageā phenomenon is different with āWettingā,Ā because the root cause is totally different.
Does it affect all EDLCs?
So far we have evidence it affects all EDLCs but mainly 2.7V series. As yet we havenāt seen āwettingā from our 3V customers, but it could be possible.
It affects all Industry sectors from HVAC to PCs, UPS, Automotive , Tracking , Building controls and AMR(Smartmeter).
Does it effect our competitors?
Yes. We have tested all our competitors 2.7V products and at some stage, some earlier than others, their products do fail
How is NEO better than other possible Anti Wetting solutions?
VINATech have improved the rubber bung, tightened the sealing (also for standard VEC series) but have also changed the Internal construction of the Capacitor to prevent the chemical reaction.
How do our competitors overcome Wetting?
One manufacturer has improved the rubber bung (like our VEC type) and added some epoxy or urethan, this has delayed the phenomenon. They also recommend anti gravitational mounting.
Other manufacturers suggest increasing the number of capacitors in series or bluntly say it is a fact of life and the customer should plan for this.
Life time, can we use the same life time data?
Yes, the NEO follows the same characteristics
Soldering and usage?
Please use the same guidelines as for VEC series, manual soldering or wave soldering (NOT Reflow)Ā Ā
No.26Can 3V Hy-Cap Supercapacitor make Rocket ?
Please check this out the video of an electric rocket, made with VINATech's Hy-Cap supercapacitor, that is, Ultracapacitor, electric double layer capacitor(EDLC). Thanks to Mr. Tom Stanton, he agreed to post it on VINATech websites.
Before the project, he thought the supercapacitor was more like future technology related with fast charging electric vehicles(EV). However, after he made supercapacitor rocket by himself with VINATech 3V supercapacitor, he found out that it has more energy density than the regular capacitor, and you can find it in the video between 01:30~02:00. 12:10 can see how fast for charging supercapacitor and 12:30 Hy-Cap supercapacitor Rocket is soaring up in the air successfully.
No.27How to make MEA, PEMFC-MEA and DMFC-MEA?
Fuel Cells are a growing source of green energy generation and VINATech is a leader in the development of this emerging technology. So how do we make our PEMFCās (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell) and MEAs (Membrane Electrode Assembly) and DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly) at VINATech.
Here is a brief overview of how we make Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly (PEMFC-MEA). Firstly it takes many years to select the right raw materials then testing incoming materials
In order to make PEMFC-MEA(Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly), Slurry Mixing: Pt/C or PtRu/C catalyst mix with binder, menstruum and water is the first step and Electrode Coating: Using the slurry make electrode for membrane and Lamination/Delamination process is followed, after then, Sub-gasket assembly process is of attaching a sub-gasket to the both side of the membrane, make 5 layers MEA. GDL (Gas Diffusion Layer) assembly is the last step that the GDL attach sub-gasket to the both side of the sub-gasket, making 7 layers MEA.
DMFC-MEA(Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membrane Electrode Assembly) required less steps than the previous one. Slurry Mixing is the process that Pt/C or PtRu/C catalyst mix with binder, menstruum and water, and Electrode Coating is done by Using the slurry coat the GDL. Next is GDL assembly process that The GDL attach membrane to both side of membrane, make 5 layers MEA.
No.28What is the measurement method of Supercapacitance ESR and Capacitance?
DC ESR(Rd) is calculated by voltage drop (ĪV) which is measured by the period of time fromĀ discharge start to 10 milliseconds later. The discharge current(A) for test and measurement,Ā 40 x Capacitance(F) x Rated Voltage(VR) would be recommended. AC Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) is measured by 4-probe impedance analyzer. Condition : Potentiostat mode, AC amplitude : 5mV, Frequency : 1ć
Supercapacitor capacitance measurement is as followed.
No.29What is VPC and VEL?
VPC is a hybrid lithium capacitor, developed by the VINATech own research and development engineers.
VPC's part number starts with VEL, and its datasheet on our web site(Link)
Learn More >> All about VPC (Link)
VINATech product research and development engineers are working hard to provide you wider product range to better serve our customers with world best energy solution technologies.
If you are still wondering what can be the most suitable device for you?Ā Contact Hycap@vina.co.kr now.
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